Stanley Tools manufactured the #78 Duplex Rabbet/Rebate
and Fillister Plane - considered the benchmark model
for this type of metal plane - in the United States
for 100 consecutive years. By 1974, production ceased
in the U.S., but was continued in Britain by Stanley
UK. Stanley also manufactured the plane and inserted branding
for other companies. There have been numerous copies
and variations by other makers. The plane has been found
with markings suggesting manufacture in Sweden, Mexico
and lately India.
To achieve a reasonable volume of poured-metal castings
using the greensand method, some type of repeatable
mold pattern must be used. Aluminum or a similar alloy
replaced traditional wood patterns, allowing for the
faster machine-molding techniques required in the 20th
century. The advantages were a longer cycle time on
the line and reduced handling care, which often accompanied
traditional wooden patterns. A master pattern could
be made, and copies duplicated from that master to ensure
quality control. This style of pattern making eventually
led to the permanent mold system, in which a cast product
could be made in quantities up to 100,000 units, depending
on the complexity of the mold.
Shown here is an actual Stanley match plate, dated
11 - 4 - 48. It is also marked with, "Stanley
Tools - C 201". The mold produced two #78-type
planes. The protrusions showing on the handle section
are locaters used to center a core - a separate section
that is placed in a mold to prevent metal from filling
that space. (The handle of the #78 is hollow.) It was
inserted into the flask after the cope* and drag* had
From the appearance of the runners, it would seem that
the pouring gate and riser is located between the plane
soles, providing for runoff in the rectangular section.
There is no evidence of venting locations, so the molders
themselves would make that judgment. While the location
is marked ("Made in U.S.A."), the match plate
is devoid of any parent company name markings. This omission
suggests that the mold was used to produce products
for other companies, whose names could be inserted prior
to the pour.
The plane is pictured only to confirm the finished
*Cope - From the Latin "cappa", meaning cape.
Here, it refers to the upper part of a flask.
*Drag - So called because it was the bottom of the flask.
It was pulled or moved along the foundry floor using a
rod or handle.