Lee Valley Tools    Woodworking Newsletter
   Vol. 6, Issue 3
   January 2012
   From the Archive

Excerpt from A Glossary of Terms Used in English Architecture by Thomas Dinham Atkinson, Algrove Publishing – Classic Reprint Series, 2004. (Originally published in 1906.)

  Intersecting arches
  Fig. 189 - Intersecting arches
Norman ornament
Fig. 190 - Norman ornament
NORMAN PERIOD. The name given by [Thomas] Rickman [1776-1841, architect] to a phase of English architecture during the time of the Norman kings; it is without definite limits, but considered by him to begin at 1066 and to end about 1189. Its chief characteristics are as follows: The construction is massive; the masonry is rough with thick joints; the arches are round, or in some of those of small span are trefoil; the walls are often decorated by small arcades of various forms, in some of these the adjoining arches intersect in a peculiar way (fig. 189); the parapet often projects and is carried on a corbel table; the buttresses are very wide and of slight projection; doorways are often very highly decorated; columns are round, or are rectangles either simple or with recesses at the angles containing small shafts, or are a combination of these forms; the bases are low and insignificant; the capitals are of various forms; vaults are either barrel-shaped or groined; large buildings generally had wooden roofs of the 'trussed-rafter' form; the mouldings are few and simple; the enrichments (fig. 190) are various and elaborate, the commonest being the zigzag, billet, chevron, bird's beak, star, nail-head.
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